The Extragalactic Distance Database (EDD)

This site has information related to the determination of distances to galaxies within about 10,000 km/s. A description that elaborates on the brief summary provided on this page is given in the reference by R.B. Tully, L. Rizzi, E.J. Shaya, H.M. Courtois, D. Makarov, and B.A. Jacobs 2009, AJ, 138, 323 `The Extragalactic Distance Database' UPDATES: Recent additions: (1) The 2MASS Redshift Survey to K=11.75 by Huchra et al. (2) The augmented 2MASS redshift survey by Lavaux and Hudson. (3) The Makarov and Karachentsev catalog of groups within 3500 km/s. (4) The Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog by Karachentsev et al.

The catalog Cosmicflows-2 Distances gives distances for 8161 galaxies, mostly within 10,000 km/s but extending to 30,000 km/s.

The first group of catalogs are based on redshift surveys and provide general information about galaxies in the local volume. The "2MASS Redshift Survey" and the "V8k" (velocity < 8,000 km/s) catalog provide alternative descriptions of the large scale structure in the region of interest. The latter is a compilation of redshifts drawn from CfA ZCAT and other literature sources. The figure shows the distribution of the galaxies in V8k in Supergalactic coordinates. Colors indicated velocities as defined by the scale at lower left. The apex of the Cosmic Microwave Background is identified.

The subsequent catalogs are alternatively drawn from the literature or compiled by the curators of this database; each provides some element of information useful for the determination of distances to galaxies. The database contains original contributions of data, or independent reductions of archival data, in the catalogs "CMDs/TRGB", "All Digital HI", "Hawaii Photometry", and "Spitzer [3.6] Band Photometry".



The catalog "CMDs/TRGB" provides Color-Magnitude Diagrams (CMD), photometry tables, and Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) fits for galaxies observed with Hubble Space Telescope, either by the curators or by others and with data drawn from the HST archive. Reductions are carried out using the stellar photometry packages developed by Andrew Dolphin: HSTPHOT for WFPC2 images and DOLPHOT for ACS images. TRGB fits are based on a maximum likelihood procedure discussed by Makarov et al. 2006. TRGB zero point issues were discussed by Rizzi et al. 2007. The CMD for Antlia dwarf galaxy is shown as an example. The contents of this catalog are described by B.A. Jacobs, L. Rizzi, R.B. Tully, E.J. Shaya, D. Makarov, and L. Makarova 2009, AJ, 138, 332 `The Extragalactic Distance Database: Color--Magnitude Diagrams'



The catalog "All Digital HI" provides graphical displays and derivatives from a uniform analysis of digital HI linewidth information drawing on our own observations with the Green Bank and Arecibo telescopes and much more information gathered from archives. An example is shown of an HI line profile observed with the Green Bank Telescope. This component of the database is described by H.M. Courtois et al. 2009, AJ, 138, 1938 `The Extragalactic Distance Database: All Digital HI Profile Catalog' and 2011, MNRAS, 414, 2005 `Cosmic Flows: Green Bank Telescope and Parkes HI Observations'

The catalog "Hawaii Photometry" provides graphic and derivative results from a program of galaxy photometry carried out with the University of Hawaii 2.2m telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The I band surface brightness as a function of radius is shown for the galaxy corresponding to the HI profile illustrated above. The I band photometry program is discussed by H.M. Courtois, R.B. Tully, N. Bonhomme, L. Rizzi, and M. Zavodny (2009) `The Extragalactic Distance Database: Hawaii Photometry Catalog' while parallel Spitzer Space Telescope photometry at 3.6 microns is presented by J.G. Sorce, H.M. Courtois, and R.B. Tully (2012) `The Mid-infrared Tully-Fisher Relation: Spitzer Surface Photometry'


The HI and photometry information is used to derive distances based on the correlation between galaxy luminosity and linewidth (the Tully-Fisher Relation). The preliminary calibration, involving comparisons to assure that distances by different methods are on a common scale culminating in a synthesis of distances by several methods, resulted in the catalog "Cosmicflows-1 Distances" discussed by R.B. Tully, E.J. Shaya, I.D. Karachentsev, H.M. Courtois, D.D. Kocevski, L. Rizzi, and A. Peel ApJ, 676, 184 (2008). The figure below on the left is extracted and modified from this reference. It illustrates the components of our motion that arise from the pull of the Virgo Cluster and a push from the Local Void. The figure on the right is a velocity field reconstruction using the Monge-Ampere-Kantorovich (MAK) technique applied to the 2MASS Redshift Survey Ks<11.25 sample and constrained with observed distances (G. Lavaux, R.B. Tully, R. Mohayaee, and S. Colombi Cosmic Flow from 2 Micron All-Sky Redshift Survey).

Wiener Filter reconstructions of the 3D velocity and density fields are illustrated by the two panels below left. The reconstruction procedure is described by H.M. Courtois, Y. Hoffman, R.B. Tully, and S. Gottloeber 3D Velocity and Density Reconstructions of the Local Volume with Cosmicflows-1 and the illustrations are taken from H.M Courtois, D. Pomarede, R.B. Tully,Y Hoffman, and D. Courtois Cosmography of the Local Universe.

Cosmicflows-1 provided almost 1800 distances to galaxies within 3,000 km/s but Cosmicflows-2, provides over 8000 distances extending to 30,000 km/s (R.B. Tully et al. Cosmicflows-2: The Data). I band and Spitzer 3.6 micron calibrations of the luminosity-linewidth correlation are presented respectively by R.B. Tully and H.M. Courtois Cosmicflows-2: I-band Luminosity-HI Linewidth Calibration and J.G. Sorce et al. Calibration of the Mid-infrared Tully-Fisher Relation. The figures illustrate a calibration of the Hubble Constant. The figure at the left provides a zero point calibration of the Type Ia supernova distance scale and the figure at the right gives a fit defining the Hubble Constant for supernovae in the redshift interval 0.03-0.5. These figures are extracted from the I band calibration of H.M Courtois and R.B. Tully Cosmicflows-2: Type Ia Supernova Calibration and H0. The subsequent Spitzer 3.6 micron calibartion of the SNIa scale by J.G. Sorce, R.B. Tully, and H.M. Courtois The Mid-infrared Tully-Fisher Relation: Calibration of the Type Ia Scale and H0 provides our currently preferred value of the Hubble Constant of H0=75.2+-3.0 km/s/Mpc.

An important feature of EDD is the ability to link between catalogs. Each galaxy in every catalog is identified by its `Principal Galaxies Catalog' (PGC) number in the Lyon Extragalactic Database (LEDA). Information for a given galaxy is matched across catalogs through the PGC identifier. One can form joined tables by selecting desired columns from multiple catalogs on the first page. The `submit' button queries the database and the result page has a single joined table. On the result page, the user can cull by minimum and maximum values or temporarily hide columns.

Support for the development of content for this database is provided by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST09-08846.